Journal of Scientific Research and Reports
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports aims to publish high quality papers (Click here for Types of paper) in all areas of ‘scientific research’. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.
From 2015, every volume of this journal will consist of 7 issues. Every issue will consist of minimum 5 papers. Each issue will be running issue and all officially accepted manuscripts will be immediately published online. State-of-the-art running issue concept gives authors the benefit of ‘Zero Waiting Time’ for the officially accepted manuscripts to be published. This journal is an international journal and scope is not confined by boundary of any country or region.
Aims: This study was aimed at defining the peculiar demographic and associated risk factors of head injury.
Study Design: This was a retrospective study
Place and Duration of Study: We conducted this study at an Accident and Emergency unit of a tertiary hospital between February 2012 and January 2013.
Methodology: All head injury patients who were admitted in the Accident and Emergency Department of a tertiary health institution were studied. Data were collected from the emergency records and case notes, collated and analyzed using the descriptive statistics and chi square test to test for significance of associations between the predictor and outcome variables in the categorical variables.
Results: Out of 3282 patients attended to during the study period, 428 (13.0%) of them had head injury. Majority were males (342, 79.9%). The peak age prevalence was in the 21- 30 years age group (n=145, 33.8%). Road traffic accidents (RTAs) were the most common cause of injury (307, 71.7%), with a majority being vehicular accident (n=215, 70.0%). The mortality rate was 1.6% (7). Many (57.0%) had associated injuries, of which fractures were the majority (n=93, 21.7%) and with skull fracture being the most common (n=27, 26.5%). Pedestrians knocked down by motor vehicles was the most common mechanism of injury (n=77, 23.3%). A few (22, 11.6%) had taken alcohol prior to the accident. Most of patients (64.7%) sustained mild head injury.
Conclusions: The incidence rate was much higher than in the developed countries. In our environment, male gender, driving a motor vehicle, being in the 1-10 years and 21- 30 years age group respectively, pedestrian and ethnic/communal clashes and violence were the major risk factors of head injury. Road safety officials should be more conscientious in tackling avoidable traffic accidents by increasing awareness and emphasizing the importance of avoidance of alcohol, speed limits, seatbelts and crash helmets.
Head Injury; epidemiology; etiology; accident; prevention; risk factors; Nigeria.