Does Pain Adversely Affect the Quality of Life in Hospitalized Cancer Patients?

Abstracts

Background: Each year, 9 million patients are   diagnosed as a cancer. The pain is the most common cancer-related symptom.  The prevalence of severe pain at diagnosis, during-active treatment and at advanced disease stage range from to 14-100%, to 50-70% and to 60-90% respectively.

Methods: In this study, the factors affecting the quality of life of cancer patients, the effects of these factors and pain on the quality of life of hospitalized cancer patients were investigated. 175 patients in Oncology Department were included. Short Form 36 and Algology Department form.

Results: In our study, the proportion of patients who had pain and who had no pain were 98.9% and 1.1% respectively. When we looked at the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score of patients, we saw that pain affects negatively on quality of life scores. When we evaluated the factors like weakness, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, sweating and when we compared the patients who had these symptoms and no symptoms like this; we found that all of these symptoms have negative impact on quality of life.

Conclusions: The development of new surgical techniques, the use of new drugs and therapies in cancer treatment increase survival and decrease mortality in cancer patients. As a progressive disease and duration of life with cancer is prolonged.  So, quality of life and pain  in cancer patients are becoming increasingly important.

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A Stacking Approach to Direct Marketing Response Modeling

Abstracts

In this work, we investigate the viability of the stacked generalization approach in predictive modeling of a direct marketing problem. We compare the performance of individual models created using different classification algorithms, and stacked ensembles of these models. The base algorithms we investigate and use to create stacked models are Neural Networks, Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machines (SVM), Naïve Bayes and Decision Tree (CART). These algorithms were selected for their popularity and good performance on similar tasks in previous studies. Using a benchmark experiment and statistical tests, we compared five single algorithm classifiers and 26 stacked ensembles of combinations these algorithms on two popular metrics: Area Under ROC Curve (AUC) and lift.  We will demonstrate a significant improvement in the AUC and lift values when the stacked generalization approach is used viz a viz the single-algorithm approach. We conclude that despite its relative obscurity in marketing applications, stacking holds great promise as an ensembling technique for direct marketing problems.

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Microbial Response to Varying Concentrations of Crude Oil Pollution of Agricultural Soils in Ondo State, Nigeria

Abstracts

This research investigated the effects of varying concentrations of crude oil on the population of crude oil degrading microorganisms in crude oil polluted agricultural soils from Igodan- Lisa, Oba-Ile and Ido-Ani areas of Ondo State, Nigeria. The soil samples were exposed to 1- 4% (w/w) crude oil and analyzed monthly for six periods using standard microbiological techniques for the cultivation and enumeration of crude oil degrading bacteria and fungi. Results indicated that the crude oil degrading microbial populations were significantly altered. The population of crude oil degrading microbes were higher (1.03 x 105 – 1.10 x 106 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.07 x 104 – 8.67 x 105 sfu/g for fungi) in polluted than unpolluted (1.53 x 104 – 9.40 x 105 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.17 x 103 – 5.17 x 105 sfu/g for fungi) soils and also varied with increase in the amount of crude oil spilled and time. The mean count indicated that the microbiological status of the soil samples were not negatively impacted at 1-4% crude oil contamination and the effect on soil micro flora is a function of both concentration and contact time.

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Effect of Ad-libitum, Split and Restricted Feeding on Performance, Digestibility and Welfare of Broiler Chickens

Abstracts

An experiment was conducted to assess the performance, welfare and digestibility of broilers fed varying forms of feeding regimes. The objective of this work research was investigate the possibility of improving growth performances, digestibility and welfare of broilers using ad libitum, split and restricted feeding.

Formulated diet was given in four different forms Ad-libitum (Treatment 1) twice a day meal/split feeding (Treatment 2) thrice a day feeding (Treatment 3) 3 hours restriction feeding (Treatment 4). Experimental design was completely randomized design. 240 broilers were randomly allotted to four treatments with 6 replicates and 10 birds per replicate. Birds were weighed weekly to evaluate their performances, faeces was collected on day 42, to determine digestibility and rectal temperature was taken as a measure of bird’s wellbeing.

Results showed that there were no significant differences (p≥ 0.05) in performance of birds across treatments but values from birds fed Ad-libitum were higher. Rectal temperature (RT) differ at week 4, birds fed 3 hours restricted feeding had the highest RT (41.62°C) while the least RT were from birds fed Ad-libitum (41.20°C). Significant differences were obtained in digestibility and nutrient utilization of broilers with respect to feeding regimes. Crude protein (CP) digestibility was significantly higher in birds fed 3 hours restriction (81.91%) while birds fed Ad-libitum had the least (46.76%). The digestibility of crude fibre was higher in birds fed 3 hours restricted feeding regime (86.77%) the least was from birds fed thrice a day feeding regime (62.66%). A similar trend was obtained for digestibility of gross energy.

Ad-libitum feeding had the highest non-significant performance values but split feeding optimized feed and nutrient utilization thereby enhancing performance and minimizing nutrient waste at the same time.

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Variations in Platelet Indices among Healthy Nigerian Population

Abstracts

Background: The degree of platelet activation may be assessed by platelet indices such as platelet count (PC), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW). Platelet indices are potentially predictive, diagnostic and prognostic useful markers for platelet-related disorders.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate platelet indices in a Nigerian population.

Methods: One hundred and eighty-six (186) subjects were enrolled for this study (102 females and 84 males). Thirty (30) of the subjects were ≤30 years, 108 were aged between 30 years-60years while 48 of the subjects were above 60 years. Three (3) ml of venous blood was collected from each consenting subjects into an ethyl diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant bottle at a concentration of 1.5 mg/ml of blood. Full Blood Count (FBC) was determined using the haematology autoanalyzer-Mindray BC-5300. Pearson correlation and one-way analysis of variance and student’s t-test were performed using the statistical package for social sciences-value was set at ≤0.05.

Results: Among the subjects enrolled for the study those with blood group A were 41, blood group B, 28 blood groups AB were 5 and blood group O, 112. The mean values for the platelet indices were MPV (fl) 9.547±1.170 and 9.682±1.054, PDW 14.69±5.181 and 14.54±1.946, Plateletcrit (PCT) (ml/l)1.362±1.173 and 1.47±1.150, among females and males respectively. The PDW varied significantly in the age groups except for ages <30 versus age>60, while PCT which measures the total volume of platelets in a given volume of blood, showed a significant difference for all the age groups. MPV and PDW correlated negatively with platelet in all the age groups and sexes while PCT correlated positively with platelet in all the age groups.

Conclusion: Platelet indices correlate with age, differ among age groups. This underlines the importance of reference ranges among different age groups.

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Composition and Physical Properties of the Natural Gas Supplied for Domestic Use through the Distribution Network

Abstracts

Aims: To assess the composition of the Natural Gas (NG) supplied for domestic consumption through the distribution network to correlate the physical properties linked to it were to be determined in order to investigate their fluctuations.

Study Design:  The samples were analyzed in accordance with the method described in the ISO 6974‑4 standard, “Natural Gas. Determination of Composition with Defined Uncertainty by Gas Chromatography”.

Place and Duration of Study: Center of Technology Research, Fuels Laboratory, between January and December 2016.

Methodology: Over the course of the year, a total of eighty-four samples of natural gas for domestic use were analyzed.  These were collected at a rate of one per month in seven cities in the geographical zone under study (Galicia_Spain), in which the number of users is significant.

Results and Conclusion: The protocols for technical management of the Gas System have a section on quality specifications for Natural Gas at entry points to the system.  This sets limits for only three of the physical properties of natural gas: Wobbe index, superior calorific value and relative density.

The figures obtained for Wobbe index, superior calorific value and relative density from the eighty-four samples studied showed that the quality of the Natural Gas distributed remained steadily within the acceptable limits throughout the whole year. The values for standard deviations bore witness to the fact that any variations did not significantly alter the quality of the Natural Gas supplied.

The concentrations of the odorant, THT, were always above the recommended value of 18.0 mg/Nm3, the fluctuations noted over the course of the year were such as to make it possible to see them as excessive. In some instances, a high concentration of odorant may lead users to erroneous impressions, so that they come to think that there are leaks from the gas-pipes or even that the gas is not burning properly.

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Evaluation of Empirical Functions and Fate of Isomaltose

Abstracts

Aim: To validate the empirical functions of isomaltose and proposed its fates in metabolism using computational analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: This work was carried out at the Department of Biochemistry at the Federal University of Technology Akure Nigeria in 2017.

Methodology: We make use of text mining of experimental articles on isomaltose, predicted the potential targets using Swisstargetprediction server, and the Swisssimilarity server was used for drug similarity analysis.

Results: Isomaltose exhibits antimicrobial activity, biodegradability, non-toxic, and find its use in food, biochemistry and pharmaceutical industries as a prebiotic molecule, precursor metabolite and potent medicine respectively. Isomaltose possibly has a lower glycemic index, with the fate that implicated the production of diglucosamine, by the help of specific aminotransferase, and that there is a possibility of biosynthesis of secondary metabolites through isomaltose pathway.

Conclusion: This study provides the future areas of research and application of isomaltose.

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Influence of Grass Mulch on Soil Physical Attributes of a Luvisol and Water Requirement of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in the Transition Zone of Ghana

Abstracts

The experiment was conducted to assess the influence of grass mulch on some soil physical attributes of a luvisol and water requirement of cowpea in the transition zone of Ghana at the University of Education, Winneba, Mampong campus. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used. The grass mulch rates were; 1 t ha-1, 3 t ha-1, 5 t ha-1 and control (no mulch) with four replications. The grass mulch was applied evenly on the soil surface under a cultivated cowpea. Parameters assessed were soil aggregate stability, bulk density, soil porosity, soil gravimetric and volumetric moisture contents, cumulative infiltration, sorptivity, organic matter content and cowpea seed yield. The study showed that mulching improved cowpea seed yield, soil gravimetric moisture content, soil volumetric moisture content, cumulative infiltration amount, infiltration rate, sorptivity and soil residual moisture. The soil physical parameters measured in both the minor and major seasons were higher on the 5 t ha-1 plots but lower on the control (no mulch) plots. There was a significant (P = .05, r = 0.61) positive correlation between the cowpea seed yield and soil gravimetric moisture content. Estimation of water requirement of cowpea using the Blaney-Criddle method produced higher values in 2010 (629.70 mm season-1), 2011 (619.60 mm season-1) than the field graphical estimated values in 2010 (399.00 mm season-1), 2011 (357.0 mm season-1) and improvised evaporation pan values in 2010 (347.90 mm season-1), 2011 (136.11 mm season-1) seasons Although cowpea is tolerant to water deficit to some extent, the use of 5 t ha-1 mulch for sustainable soil moisture management would be important in areas of erratic and inadequate rainfall.

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Dimensionless Geomorphometry and Discharge in the Ikpa River Basin, Nigeria

Abstracts

This study evaluates the relationships between dimensionless basin geomorphometry and discharge in the Ikpa River. The basin was stratified into seven sub-units using [1] scheme. Geospatial tools were used in generating data for the digital elevation model, while dimensionless geomorphometric parameters were generated from topographic maps (sheet 322 NE; sheet 322 SE; sheet 323 SW; and sheet 331 NW) of the basin area drawn on a scale of 1.50,000. The sampled sub-basins were gauged and discharge measured by a surface float. Graphical analysis of discharge revealed wide variations between months and in seasons across sub-basins with the rainy season attracting highest volume of discharge and the corresponding fluvial processes. The regression analysis yields a coefficient of multiple determination (R) of 0.937, signifying a very high effect expressed by 87.8 of the proportion of variance in dimensionless geomorphometric parameters on discharge in Ikpa River Basin. Also, the computed F value yields 1.439, while the Table value tested at (0.05)5/2 confident level offers 19.30. The result led to the conclusion that variations in relief ratio, average bifurcation ratio, circularity ratio, elongation ratio and form factor have a significant effect on discharge in Ikpa River Basin. This paper recommends for prompt installations of state of the art river gauging and monitoring facilities to provide the needed information to the government, researchers, and individuals for the sustainable land and watershed development options (dam and irrigation) in the coastal plain of Ikpa River basin.

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Biodisinfection and Coagulant Properties of Mixed Garcinia kola and Carica papaya Seeds Extract for Water Treatment

Abstracts

Garcinia kola (Heckel) and Carica papaya (Linn.) seeds from ripe fruits were investigated for their disinfection and coagulation activity in water. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of alkaloid, saponins, flavonoid and tannins in both seeds. Physicochemical analysis of the water samples was determined before and after treatment with seed solutions. Results showed that mixed Garcinia kola and Carica papaya extracts had no significant effect (P > .05) on temperature, pH, conductivity and chloride but significantly reduced (P = .05) TDS, BOD, nitrate, nitrite and turbidity. The coagulation and antimicrobial efficiency of mixed Garcinia kola Heckel and Carica papaya seed solution at different concentrations on turbid surface water (collected from Ogbor Hill River in Aba) were studied and compared. Microbial reduction for mixed extract of Garcinia kola and Carica papaya solution showed antimicrobial efficiency of 41.67 – 83.33% for Total coliform, 47.85 – 60.89% for E. coli, 12.87-83.33% for Fecal streptococcus, 40.46 – 83.33% for staphylococcus Aureus and 50.43 – 74.36% for Total heterotrophic bacteria at different concentration. Mixed Garcinia kola and Carica papaya seed solution reduced the turbidity perfectly at the optimum doze of 3% at which 67.83% turbidity was removed by mixed solution. Garcina kola and Carica papaya seeds are non toxic and do not significantly affect the pH and conductivity of the treated water. So, as natural coagulants, both seeds may be potentially viable for treating water.

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