Peer Review History: Assessment of Four Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Varieties for Adapatibility and Productivity in Iwo, Osun State

Abstracts

Vitamin A deficiency is prevalent especially in sub-Saharan Africa because most available food contains negligible amounts of beta-carotene which fail to meet the physiological requirements resulting in the impairment by high rates of infection. However, introducing orange-fleshed sweet potato cultivar with high ß –carotene will help eradicate the problem of vitamin A deficiency, malnutrition and food insecurity in Iwo, Nigeria. Aim: Therefore, the primary goal of this project is to enhance food security and smallholder farmers’ income including women and young people in Iwo by introducing orange-fleshed sweet potato with high nutritional values. The varieties used were: Mother’s delight (V1), King J (V2), Iwo I (V3) and Iwo II (V4). The field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State from July to October 2017. Data were taken on leaf length, leaf breadth, petiole length, plant height and tuber yield (kg). V4 had the highest number of tubers per row (17) although, it was not statistically different (P<0.05) from V1 which gave the lowest number of tubers per row (14.25). V2 had the most extended petiole length of 32.06cm, and it was statistically different (P<0.01) from the remaining three potato varieties under evaluation. V3 was the highest yielding variety with a tuber yield of 2.93kg, but it was not statistically different (P<0.05) from V1 which had the lowest tuber yield (2.05kg). V1 (an orange-fleshed variety) had the relatively lowest number of tubers per row but gave tuber yields (2.05kg) comparable with the highest yielding variety (V3 = 2.93kg), which is a locally cultivated and adapted variety. It can be concluded that the introduced ranges were similar in performance to the adapted landraces. It is recommended that the introduced varieties (specifically V1, the orange-fleshed potato) be adopted by the farmers for cultivation as the performance of both introduced varieties was significantly compared with the landraces cultivated by Iwo farmers.

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Peer Review History: Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Brazilian Women without Metastasis to Axillary Lymph Nodes: Ten-Year Survival and Prognostic Factors

Abstracts

Aims: To determine the 10-year overall survival (OS) in triple-negative (TN) and non-TN breast cancer (BC) patients, and to identify associated independent prognostic factors.

Study Design: Descriptive and survival.

Place and Duration of Study: Pathology Division at National Cancer Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1992-1996.

Methodology: Population: 348 women patients with invasive ductal carcinoma without lymph node metastasis. Analyzed variables: age, treatment, surgery type, tumor size, skin involvement, histological grade, vascular invasion, estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67 and p53. Statistical analysis performed: Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log rank test, and multivariate Cox models.

Results: 27% of the studied women were categorized as TNBC and 73%, as non-TNBC. The former showed higher frequency of age <50yr, preoperative chemotherapy, tumors >5cm, high grade, vascular invasion, and positive p53, (P=.05). Ten-year OS among TNBC patients was 61.6%, and 70.1% for non-TNBC patients (P=.058). Survival was higher in TNBC patients treated with partial surgeries, tumors ≤5cm, without skin involvement, low grade, and Ki-67 negative (P=.05). Among non-TNBC patients, higher survival was observed in patients without skin involvement, low grade, no vascular invasion, and p53 negative, (P=.05). Cox modelization showed a 2-fold higher death risk for TNBC patients aged ≥50yr, about 2.5-fold higher risk related to preoperative chemotherapy, high grade tumor and skin involvement, and a 3.0-fold higher risk for Ki-67 positive patients (P=.05). For non-TNBC patients, a 2.0-fold increased death risk was verified in patients with skin involvement and vascular invasion (P=.05).

Conclusion: TNBC patients showed a worse prognosis and survival when compared to non-TNBC patients. A worse 10-yr survival among TNBC patients was associated with age ≥50yr, preoperative chemotherapy, skin involvement, high histological grade, and Ki-67 positive tumors. For non-TNBC patients, the worst prognosis was related to skin involvement and vascular invasion. These predictors need to be further validating by other studies.

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Peer Review History: Quantitative Assessment of the Risk Associated to Bacillus cereus Group for the Attieke Consumer in Daloa City (Côte d’Ivoire)

Abstracts

Aims: Attieke is a fermented cassava product. It may be contaminated by species of Bacillus cereus group, responsible for food poisoning. The objective of this study was to assess the risk associated with B. cereus group for the attieke consumer in Daloa city (Côte d’Ivoire).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Formation and Research in chemistry and food sciences, Laboratory of Industrial Process Synthesis and Environment, Felix Houphouet-Boigny National Polytechnic Institute, between April and November 2017.

Methodology: First, an investigation procedure was followed. In this method, 386 persons were interviewed in order to determine the general pattern of attieke consumption and potential symptoms related to its suse. Then, physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on thirty attieke samples collected in eight suburbs of Daloa city following standard methods. A probabilistic approach was followed to assess the risk related to attieke consumption quantitatively. Finally, the risk of ingesting the infectious dose of 1010 B. cereus cells was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation using both load distribution and consumption one. Data collected were subjected to statistical analyses.

Results: Physicochemical characterisation showed that the pH value, acidity and moisture content of attieke were 4.74 ± 0.76, 49.08 ± 28.93 meq.g/100 g and 51.46 ± 1.72%, respectively. These characteristics are within the recommended standards for attieke. The enumeration of B. cereus group gave loads ranging from 103 to 107 CFU/g. Besides, all the attieke samples were contaminated by these germs. A proportion of 50% of samples had poor quality. It appears that the risk exists and is 0.13% i.e., 130 cases per 100,000 inhabitants.

Conclusion: Attieke was contaminated by bacteria belonging to B. cereus group. Its consumption represents a risk of food poisoning. This risk is estimated to be 130 cases per 100,000 inhabitants.

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Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Ibadan, Nigeria: Prevalence, Correlates and Co-infection with HIV

Abstracts

Aim: Vertical transmission of Hepatitis C virus, often enhanced in the presence of HIV co-infection, results in unidentified perinatally infected children who present in adulthood with long-term complications of chronic liver disease. This study was set out to determine the prevalence of chronic HCV infection, co-infection with HIV and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Study Design: A cross sectional study.

Method: A total of 180 pregnant women attending the ante-natal clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan, from March to August 2013, were screened for HCV using third generation Enzyme Linked Immuno-absorbent Assay (ELISA) and confirmatory assay using nucleic acid tests were done on positive samples. Anti-HIV-1 antibodies were identified using qualitative immunoassay determine test strips. Pretested validated questionnaire were used to obtain bio-data on sociodemographic characteristics and presence of possible risk factors for HCV infection. Data analyses was done using SPSS version 20.

Results: Overall seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody was 1.7% (3/180) and anti-HIV-1 antibody was 20.6% (37/180). All HCV positive samples had HCV RNA identified in them but no detectable viraemia. No co-infection between HCV/HIV was observed. Low level of education, marital status, and positive history of surgical procedures, blood transfusion and jaundice was significantly associated HCV infection.

Conclusion: Hepatitis C virus infection is less prevalent than HIV infection among pregnant women in Ibadan and its co-infection with HIV is uncommon. The sexual behavioural risk factors identified in this study were not predictors of HCV infection; however, these factors may predispose these pregnant women to other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

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